Spiral Mechanics, The Mesopotamian Arithmetic and Geometry of Antiquity, explains the rise of civilization from the discovery of the stairway from heaven at the end of the 4th millennium BC. The Sumerians discovered a mathematical identity that gives the exact numerical configuration of the universe. The identity was the source of the classical sciences of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. While Pythagoras was studying in Babylon the identity was revealed to him in all its splendor and became the foundation of Pythagorean philosophy and mathematics. The Mesopotamian identity is spelled out word for word by a boy named Theaetetus in Plato's dialogue named after the boy. Using the identity, the puzzle of mathematics can be easily and unambiguously explained to everyone. In 300 BC the identity was erased from history by the Hellenic aristocracy and replaced with a complex and counter-intuitive alternative, the Elements of Euclid.