"The Return of Direct Defense in Europe" catalogs the rise of the 21st century authoritarian powers. Putin's Russia, Chinese global reach, but also Turkey's President Erdogan's agenda, pose new challenges for the direct defense of liberal democracies. The focus is upon Europe and, among other themes, its response to the twin shocks of Crimea and the migration influxes from the war-torn Middle East, a migration dynamic aided and abetted by the Russian intervention in the Syrian Civil War. The rise of the 21st Century authoritarian powers has shaped the context within which liberal democracies must reshape their capabilities. Learn about the ways we can act to defend democracy together, and the obstacles we must overcome.