We are like fish trying to see water. It is hard to see our own culture because we are immersed in it. Culture is the defining characteristic of the human species. Anthropology studies culture. Sub-disciplines include Cultural Anthropology or Ethnology, Anthropological Linguistics, Archaeology, and Physical Anthropology. This textbook has a chapter on each, a four-fields textbook. This is a traditional textbook in the sense that it focuses on the uniqueness of each culture (rather than other textbooks' focus on power relations in a culture). Topics include living peoples and cultures, past cultures, relationships between language and culture, and interrelationships between biology, culture and environment. All affect each other, all interact, all change, all are human ways of adapting to a changing world. Each changes the others.